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by Dr. Scott Price

Welcome back to the Inclusive Piano Teaching blog. Today’s entry is part two of a discussion on teaching students with visual impairments. I would like talk briefly about some things to think about when bringing a student into the piano studio.  Some of these things may sound redundant, but can have a substantive impact on the educational experience for these students. 

So much of what we do as pianists depends on sight. We use our sight to read the music, find our way around the keyboard, study related music subjects, and various other activities needed to learn to play the piano in a traditional setting. We also use our sight to observe non-verbal communication such as facial expressions and body language, and visual models of piano playing technique. If you think about it, when we remove sight from the teacher/student equation much of our traditional teaching process is removed as well.

Here is a list of things to keep in the teaching toolbox to help facilitate a positive and meaningful experience for the student with a visual impairment.

1) Collect Information: Be informed about the student’s impairment, and any associated needs.  Most parents and caregivers want the best for their children and will be very open and honest about these things. Some of this information may also be found in the Individual Education Plan (IEP) if the parents are willing to share it with you.

2) Communication: Be honest and communicative with the student and parents about the challenges and procedures for teaching. If you are unsure of how to proceed with aspects of the instructional process, ask for help. Our students and their parents are used to navigating their world and can be our best teachers in the process.

3) Surroundings: Give the student a tour of your studio or teaching area so that they may learn and memorize the placement of furniture and objects.  If anything is moved between lessons, be sure to let them know so that they may adjust.

4) Tone and Clarity: Facial expressions and body language are no longer part of the communicative experience in most cases.  Tone of voice and clarity in vocabulary are important keys to success.

5) Explanations: Be sure to explain the learning and teaching process to the students so they know what to expect and how the process will work.

6) Permission: Where the teaching needs to be very tactile (i.e. hand-over-hand), it is nice to ask permission to touch the student and to explain what you are doing and why.  Unexpected physical contact can be startling for a sighted person, so you can imagine what it must be like for someone with a vision impairment.

7) Follow-Up: Always follow-up and ask if the student understands everything or if they need more instruction on a certain task or element of the lesson.  Developing an environment where they are comfortable being totally involved in the instructional process and the outcomes is very important.

8) Practice Instructions: Stay in communication with the parents regarding practice instructions.  Be very clear in written instructions.  It is always useful for a parent to be present to see what occurs in the lesson and what is expected during the practice sessions. Smart phones and tablets can be very useful in recording segments of the lesson so parents can reference them at home. Additionally, students may use recording devices to assist them in their practice and learning at home.

9) Pacing: Always allow the student enough time to listen, experience and try concepts, absorb and reflect, and to ask as many questions as needed. Sitting back and not saying anything while a student works does not mean you are being a bad teacher. It means you are giving them time to work and understand.

10) Empathy: Perhaps most importantly, see what it is like. Put on a blindfold and take a tour of your studio or working teaching space, experience the environment, and try to go through your technical regimen and repertoire and practice habits.  It will be a very instructive experience.

I always try to remember that some of the best pedagogy teachers are my students. Asking questions of them and observing them in their learning process always makes me a better teacher, and I learn how to serve them better on their musical journey.

Thank you for reading, and we hope to see you back soon. The National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy will include workshop offerings on teaching students with special needs. The next conference is scheduled for July 26-29, 2017 in Lombard, IL (a suburb of Chicago). Information is available at:

National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy

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by Dr. Scott Price

Welcome back to the Inclusive Piano Teaching blog. After a brief rest, we are back sharing information and resources with all of you.

Today’s post will include information on where to find resources for teaching students with visual impairments. This group of students includes students who are blind and those with partial vision, but can also be expanded to include those of us who wear corrective lenses, or suffer from macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other conditions.

Fortunately, a wide array of resources is available for students and teachers – you just need to know where to find them.

An important first stop on the journey should be the Library of Congress National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS). The NLS provides numerous services and products to assist with music learning and enjoyment for persons with visual impairments, and is a free library service supported by tax dollars. You can find the main webpage at this link (click on the blue link for access):

National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped

This webpage will guide you to all of the resources the Library of Congress offers concerning music instruction for people with visual impairments.  Visually impaired persons must register to use some of the services, and to obtain Braille music scores.  The breadth of materials includes popular and classical music scores, recordings, textbooks, opera libretti, large-print music scores, the Braille music catalog.

For your piano students, items include braille scores for the standard classical piano repertoire, and many of the widely used piano method series. There is a catalog search function that is easy to navigate. Visit the direct link to the music services page comprehensive listing of resources:

Comprehensive Listing of Resources

You may also peruse the NLS Music Notes blog for articles on services and general music subjects:

Music Notes Blog

Available for download is a free PDF version of the Music Braille Code. It is 362 pages, and includes information on transcribing music for piano and all other instruments including orchestra and vocal ensemble.

Music Braille Code PDF

Among many other useful websites and services is the Dancing Dots company.  This company was founded by Bill McCann, a blind musician and programmer. Dancing Dots offers Braille music resources and instructional materials, and is particularly notable for the assistive technologies they offer including software to assist with Braille transcription and Braille translation - all available for a cost. 

An interesting yet expensive product they offer is a set of “Tack-Tiles” which are a set of plastic blocks much like Lego toy blocks, and have raised dots on top specifically for use in teaching students to read the Braille music code.  They can be arranged in different combinations as needed.  These are only a few of the Dancing Dot products. Visit the website for more information:

Dancing Dots Company

While not music related, an important stop for information regarding services and products for the visually impaired is the National Federation of the Blind. In addition to the national federation website, each state (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) has an affiliate that may be contacted for information and support:

National Federation of the Blind

Colleges and Universities should all have an office or center specifically charged to assist students with disabilities.  Many students will arrive on campus with learning assistive technology, and other assistive devices and should already be registered for assistance. If they are not registered, you may direct them to the appropriate office through a quick search on the college or university webpage. These offices can also be very helpful to instructors who are learning about services.

If you are interested in learning more about assistive technology, a quick visit to the Perkins Products website will lead you to information on embossing machines, and other products that may be useful in the studio:

Perkins Products Company

If you are interested in having a favorite teaching piece transcribed into the Braille music code, it is possible to gain permission through a publisher. At one point, I contacted a major educational music publishing company to inquire about resources for students with visual impairments. While they did not keep braille music/text items in stock, they said that they were happy to grant permission for pieces to be embossed for accessibility.

This post contains a mere beginning start to find resources for music study for the visually impaired. An internet search can turn up many others that may be of use and interest. And of course, our students are always our best teachers when we need help serving their needs. Many of them will be able to help us navigate resources as we partner with them to meet their educational needs. Join us for our next post that will be about how our piano studio and educational process needs to be adapted to best serve our students with visual impairments.

Thank you for reading, and we hope to see you back soon. The National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy will include workshop offerings on teaching students with special needs. The next conference is scheduled for July 26-29, 2017 in Lombard, IL (a suburb of Chicago). Information is available at:

National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy

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by Dr. Beth Bauer

‘Tis the season for recitals.  To prepare our studios for the recital, it is common to pick the date and venue, decide on the type of recital (duet, theme, holiday), plan the reception, and pick repertoire for our students.  Many of these same things occur when preparing for a recital with our students with special needs; however, there are also other things that need to occur for our students with disabilities to have a positive recital experience.  Some of these things require extra planning on my part. 

One question I am often asked is whether or not my recitals are inclusive or do I separate my students with special needs from my students who are typical.  My recitals are inclusive with all students participating together.  I spend time teaching my students who are typical about what they could see at the recital.  I also write social stories so that my students with disabilities know what will happen at the recital and what is good recital behavior.   Beginning in January before the May recital, I start discussing a recital checklist that each student has in their assignment notebook (see below).  This checklist and the social story about the recital help to ease possible student anxiety about what is unknown or unfamiliar in a recital.  Many students will often bring this checklist to the actual recital and follow it.  For a first year piano student, the parents and I discuss student participation in the recital.  If the parent or I do not feel the child understands what the recital is - or is not ready to participate - I suggest that the student come to the recital and watch it.  By the next year, the student who watched a recital will now perform in it.

Another area for preparation is to allow my students to see the actual recital space prior to the day of the recital, which helps to ease anxiety.  One of my students scripts about geometrical shapes whenever he is nervous.  Prior to the day of the recital, we scheduled several study sessions where he visited the recital venue.  On the first visit, he scripted the organ pipes at the front of the recital hall into geometric shapes and walked around the space.  We scheduled a second study session because he was very anxious at the first session.  At the second session, he walked into the space and again scripted the shapes but was willing to walk to the piano and play his piece.  On the day of the recital, he walked straight to the piano, took a bow, played his piece, took another bow, and walked back to his seat.  There was NO mention of shapes on the recital day because he had time to get comfortable with the recital venue.

When working with students with disabilities, it is important to be consistent.  This is also applicable to recital day and recital preparation.  I try to keep as many things in the studio space similar to the recital venue.  For example, to prepare for recital day I have an X marked with duct tape on the floor where students are to bow before and after playing their piece.  In the recital venue, I use the exact same type of duct tape and place the X in the same place.  This is not only to create a similar consistent environment, but to also ease anxiety.  I also regularly show the student his or her place on the recital program.  The students learn their order on the recital program two weeks prior to the recital.  Several students ask to have the exact same place number each year and I accommodate those requests.

Another area where I often receive questions is about memorization.  At my studio recitals, you will see students who play by memory and some who use scores.  I base the memorization answer on each individual student.  There are several students I work with who cannot memorize; we have tried and tried but it does not happen.  In those cases, students are allowed to use their music.

My studio recitals do not last longer than one hour.  This necessitates me dividing the studio into two groups.  I ask parents for their recital time preference and try to accommodate all requests.  The rationale for keeping the recital to around an hour is the attention span of many of the students.  If a parent is concerned about his or her student not being able to handle an hour-long recital, the parent brings quiet activities to keep the student engaged during the recital.  There have not been problems with behavior or attention spans because the students are looking forward to receiving the awards they have earned.

Recitals can be stressful for students.  It is also very rewarding to see the smile a student has after a successful performance.  At last year’s recital, there were several firsts for me as a teacher.  For one student, he followed his recital checklist.  He walked to the piano, took a bow, sat down on the bench, and turned to the audience to announce to them, “I hope you are ready because this is going to be good.”  He performed his piece very well.  His parents and I were shocked because we didn’t know what to expect from his pre-performance announcement.  Another little boy followed his checklist and performed his piece.  When it was time to go back to his seat, he announced “Mom, I did it.”  The audience was in tears.  For the student I previously mentioned who would rearrange the performance space into geometric shapes, he performed a very advanced movement of a Beethoven Sonata.  He did a great job!  What made this recital different than the last ten years was that he had the courage to verbally invite his classmates and teachers from school.  Sometimes the value of the recital is not the musical performance itself but the nonmusical accomplishments.

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 Board Maker Checklist:

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by Dr. Scott Price

Studio environment can play an important role in the success of our students with special needs.  We don’t tend to think of the studio as being more than a tool in the lesson, but the actual environment and the objects present can sometimes be the deciding factors in the success or failure of a lesson. Maintaining a special-needs-friendly environment will be appreciated by students and parents, and a well-maintained space can become a welcoming and safe environment for students who may experience stress and anxiety on a moment-to-moment basis.

Many of our students with special needs experience over-stimulation or hyper-sensitivity in their daily lives. Florescent lights, loud sounds, strong odors, and even the feel or tightness of some clothing fabrics against the skin can make it difficult for students to focus and maintain concentration during the lesson.

Creating a studio environment that alleviates or is free from many of these types of distractions is one key to opening the door to success for them in their music studies. Sometimes just getting out of the car, navigating the sidewalk, and the sounds of traffic and people, the doors and elevators, can be overwhelming. Some students may need a few moments at the beginning of a lesson to be quiet and acclimate to their surroundings, and to decompress from any outside stimuli that have been overwhelming during the day. Others may need a short chat with their teacher to achieve a sense of normalcy and calm, and to decompress.

Unwelcome distractions may include:

Temperature – is the studio too hot or too cold? Some students may be sensitive to temperature changes and may need time to appropriately put on or take off a jacket or sweater, and adjust to the new temperature.

Perfume/Cologne – while one or two sprays of perfume or cologne may be barely noticeable to a teacher, a hyper-sensitive student may experience a heightened awareness of the smell that is overwhelming and distracting to them. The same overwhelming effect may be caused by household perfumes and cleaners.

Lighting – the flickering of florescent lights (and the color of that type of lighting), may be very distracting for students. Ambient daylight, or other types of lighting may be less harsh and more conducive to the learning environment.

Computers/technology – active computer screens or tablets, or other technology may be distracting especially if email/text alerts and phone ringtones intrude on the lesson.

If a student is also distracted by the hammers or dampers that are visible in the grand piano, simply close the lid during the lesson to avoid the distraction.

While some of these things may be distractions to a student’s attention and to the learning process, they may also be used constructively as aids to learning and concentration. The key is in using them in a conscious way with clearly articulated guidelines and rules on usage, and making sure the student understands the purpose and appropriate timing and use of the distraction.

Welcome distractions may include:

If a student experiences anxiety or stress, worry beads or stress balls may be used as a means of relieving or managing those feelings. In some cases, these objects can aid students who experience motor-planning skill deficits or who have poor body awareness.

Just as active computer screens can be a distraction, they may also alleviate stress and anxiety if the student needs a short break from the intellectual or emotional tension of the lesson. Well-planned and assigned computer or tablet/technology time may provide a break in the intensity of the lesson.

Taking a few moments to allow a student to jump or run around may also alleviate the same feelings. Well-planned and assigned physical activity may be used to alleviate stress and anxiety, and may help the student retain or redirect focus on the lesson. We often try to limit stimming behaviors, but they may sometimes be necessary to retain focus.

Above all, it comes down to knowing your students, what their distractions are, what their triggers are, and how to help them focus, decompress, and get ready for the learning process. An unplanned studio environment can be a distraction. A well-planned studio environment can help to alleviate stressors and anxiety, and distractions can be turned into well-planned enhancements to the lesson and learning process. What if you are not sure about what is or what is not a distraction and how to avoid or use them? Parents, therapists, and even the students themselves can tell or show us how to evolve our teaching to meet their needs. Never be afraid to ask and open the line of communication.

Stop back often for new entries. If you have subjects that you would like to see addressed, please send a short note to the authors at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. We will do our best to respond in future blog entries. Please note that the email address is for topic suggestions only. The authors cannot respond to individual email requests for advice. We will do our best to address suggestions for topics in future postings.

Thank you for reading, and we hope to see you back soon.

In addition, The National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy will include workshop offerings on teaching students with special needs. The next conference is scheduled for July 26-29, 2017 in Lombard, IL (a suburb of Chicago). Information is available at http://keyboardpedagogy.org/national-conference-info2

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by Dr. Melissa Martiros

Several years ago, I received a memorable email from a parent on a quest to find a piano teacher for her son, Adam.  Prior to reading the text of the email, I opened up the attached document and viewed a scanned image of her son’s school photo.  As I read through her message and scanned through the run-down of her son’s disability labels, I quickly understood the significance of the image as a strong representation of his humanness.  Asperger’s Syndrome, Attention Deficit Disorder, Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder—a palette of challenges mixed with a run-down of positive traits and a plea for open-mindedness. This continues to be the only time a parent has included a photograph with a lesson request and I believe it speaks to the vulnerabilities and challenges we all face when branded with a label.

In the field of special education, labels hold one important and dominant function—that is, to provide the documentation needed for a child to receive support services inside and outside of the classroom. IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, lists thirteen broad categories of disability that a child’s label must fall under to legally qualify for support services and accommodations.  These include Autism Spectrum Disorder, Visual Impairments, Hearing Impairments, Deaf-Blindness, Emotional Disturbances, Mental Retardation, Orthopedic Impairments, Traumatic Brain Injury, Specific Learning Disabilities, Speech or Language Impairments, Developmental Delays, Multiple Disabilities and Other Health Impairments. The category of Other Health Impairments includes diagnoses that do not fit neatly under the other twelve categories.  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourrette Syndrome and Asthma are examples of labels that fall underneath the Other Health Impairment category.

Without a label, a child is not eligible to receive the accommodations necessary to enter the school arena on an equal playing field thus limiting his ability to reach his true potential. With a label, the child is subject to discrimination, bullying, and institutionally imposed limitations that could hold her back from reaching her truest potential. In this way, labels are a double-edged sword—necessary for services that aid with educational success but detrimental when they lead to unnecessary typecasting and limitations. As educators, we need to be extremely cautious with our approach to and treatment of labels.  We should always strive to honor and respect the humanness of each individual child we teach, regardless of how they have been labelled. And, under absolutely no circumstance should we ever take it upon ourselves to self-diagnose a child, regardless of the level of confidence in our all too often misguided assumptions. 

Upon completion of every “Pedagogical Strategies for Children with Special Needs” workshop, I am always asked following question: “what do I do when a student obviously has a disability but the parent has not been forthcoming with the label?” Here is my response: Do Nothing. It is simply not necessary.  While a label can sometimes serve as a guide for expected outcomes and accommodations, more often than not the most effective instructional adaptations will be responses to the manifestation of symptoms, not the label. If our focus is on building rapport and establishing student centered-teaching, the labels are irrelevant. 

Which brings me back to Adam.  Sometimes labels can clue us in to how best accommodate a child. However, more often than not, disability labels are defined differently for each individual child.   Had I focused solely on Adam’s labels, I likely would not have agreed to work with him in which case I would not have learned that his Tourette-related tick’s stopped when he played music, his ADHD symptoms were well managed with medication, and his Aspergian brain allowed him to process music significantly faster than all of his same-aged peers.  He was smart and funny and a lot of fun to work with.  And now, nearly ten years later, he continues playing piano recreationally and has become quite an impressive musician.  

More information on IDEA – The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act  - may be found at: idea.ed.gov

Stop back often for new entries. If you have subjects that you would like to see addressed, please send a short note to the authors at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. We will do our best to respond in future blog entries. Please note that the email address is for topic suggestions only. The authors cannot respond to individual email requests for advice. We will do our best to address suggestions for topics in future postings.

Thank you for reading, and we hope to see you back soon.

In addition, The National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy will include workshop offerings on teaching students with special needs. The next conference is scheduled for July 26-29, 2017 in Lombard, IL (a suburb of Chicago). Information is available at http://keyboardpedagogy.org/national-conference-info2