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Enjoy a guest blog post that Dr. Scott Price authored for Alfred Music:

Repertoire Choices for Students with Autism

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by Dr. Scott Price

Numbers seem integral to music study, but they can be very problematic for our students with special needs.

We use numbers to assist us in our process, but meter and rhythm are beat units that are heard and felt. Our fingers are all different shapes and lengths, and we use them in groupings to manipulate the piano to make sounds. We use numbers as labels and to keep track of our fingers, and as a reminder of which fingers to use in certain spots, but those numbers may be thought of as place markers to help us organize our thinking. One person’s finger numbering practice for a particular passage of music may be different from another person’s usage.  The use of finger numbers may also create an additional layer of abstraction in thinking that may not be useful or may be confusing for our students. 

Additional problems with numbers are the varying roles we assign them in everyday life and education. We use numbers for basic counting (1, 2, 3, 4, - cardinal numbers), ordering (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th,- ordinal numbers), we use numbers in different ways in all levels of mathematic study, use of money, and in discerning the time of day. We also have different numbering systems such as Arabic numbers, and Roman numerals. And we haven’t yet taken into account the use of numbers in measurement systems. 

Our students with special needs may not understand numbers, their varied uses, or how to separate those uses into different ways of understanding the world around them. Trying to understand the context of the number usage may be overwhelming or just not possible.

If numbers aren’t confusing enough, we make use of homonyms. Students may not be able to understand words in context. They may have trouble distinguishing the difference between the word sounds of “two,” “too,” and “to,” and the connection with the printed and spoken numeral “2.”

Layering the use of numbers onto fingers may create another level of abstraction that confuses or overwhelms our students. We cannot assume they understand what we are teaching them, or that they bring to the instructional setting an understanding of context or the ability to transfer knowledge between tasks. 

Traditional pedagogy may be confusing even for our neuro-typical students. We often expect our students to come to us with a working knowledge of numbers, be able to attend to instruction, remember and reproduce the task at home, and transfer it to other pieces they are studying.

Here are some things I try to remember and observe about my students as I frame my pedagogy and begin to teach any concept including finger numbers:

  • Some students may not possess a vocabulary. They may not know or understand the words we are using to instruct them. They may not respond to instruction simply because they do not know the meanings of our words or the relationships of those words to objects or actions in our instruction. What we are saying may be gibberish to them.
  • Some of our students may be non-verbal. They may not speak or may make use of limited verbal communication. 
  • Some of our students may have auditory processing issues. They may need repetition in our speaking, or they may need more time to sort out the sounds we are making with our mouths, and more time to conceptualize what we are saying.
  • Some of our students may have developmental delays that render abstractions in our instruction meaningless, irrelevant, or counterproductive.
  • In the case of students with autism, metaphors and analogies may not be useful teaching constructs. They will need for us to use more literal vocabulary and concept delivery in our instruction.
  • Students with fine motor skill deficits may need more time to control and move their bodies to accomplish the task we set for them.
  • Other students may be non-desirous of physical touch.
  • In the case of a student with a hearing impairment, we need to be sure we are looking directly at them while speaking, and enunciating clearly, and being sure they can see our mouths so that they may read our lips. We should also remember to not play and talk at the same time so that they may hear clearly if they have assistive devices like hearing aids or cochlear implants.
  • For a student with a vision impairment, visual models of instruction and tasks are not useful. We need to make sure to explain that hand-over-hand instruction will be happening, that they are comfortable with that mode of instruction, and that we ask permission before initiating the contact to avoid startling the student, and to avoid any misunderstanding or miscommunication regarding the touching.

Realizing which of these things apply to a student’s learning ability has impact on how I frame my instruction to create a learning environment where my student can be successful. Once I have a good measure of my student’s instructional needs, the following steps may be useful in teaching a concept – in this case, finger numbers:

  • Set up a learning schedule or routine – let the student know that they will be learning about finger numbers at a certain point in the lesson. Perhaps they need to know that they will be learning about finger numbers next week, or later in the lesson. A written or icon schedule may be needed for some students. This framing of instruction is particularly important for students with autism.
  • Teach the vocabulary that will be used – I always make sure that my students understand the words I am using. If they don’t know a word, I go to any length necessary to show them the meaning and how it applies to the concept.
  • Explain the process – Saying to the student “Next we are going to do….” is a good way to start. I tell the student what we will be doing, and the instructional steps by which we will do it. “Today, we are going to learn about finger numbers on our right hand. We are going to look at our fingers and call each one a number. Then we are going to practice learning those numbers.”
  • Always ask the student if they are ready to do the activity. If I get a “yes,” then I know we are ready to begin. If I get a “no,” then I need to ask if my student needs more time to get ready or needs more time to process what I have said. If I ask again and get an additional “no,” then I need to determine if my student isn’t ready or if I am dealing with an avoidance tactic.
  • Practice – I always send my student home with a very clear and detailed listing of what they need to practice and how. This may also include a short video that is taken on their phone or their parent’s phone or is sent via email.
  • I always smile and encourage them in a calm tone of voice. Sone of my students may need a longer period of time to process the instruction and that is fine. I take as much time as needed to ensure that they have been able to learn and achieve success.
  • Repetition – I believe it is better to do the activity 20 times over and have success than to do it 19 times and give up if the student does not understand. 
  • APT acronym – I also use an acronym in my teaching. Auditory processing, pacing, and tracking. If I give my student time to process my words and instruction, move at a pace that is appropriate for their ability, and use my body language or fingers to help them track visual instruction with their eyes, then they are more APT to learn and my pedagogy is more apt to be effective.

Lastly, I always give positive affirmation at all times during the process if a student has done something correctly or shows understanding. If they have made an error, or need extra instruction and repetition, I always smile and say something like “You made a great try! Can we try it again?”

The following are some teaching techniques that I have found to be successful in teaching finger numbers to my students:

  • I often use as little vocabulary as possible and avoid lengthy abstract explanations. An example of a script might be: 

“Next, we are going to learn finger numbers. Are you ready? Look at my right hand. This is my 1 finger. This my 2 finger. This is my 3 finger… Look at your right hand. This is your 1 finger. This is your 2 finger. This is your 3 finger…”

Then we do drills to make sure they know the numbers of each finger.

  • For a non-verbal student, I may ask them to hold up or show me their fingers as I call for them – “Show me your 1. Show me your 2….” I usually do them in order and then ask the student if we are ready to do them in different order.
  • For a student who doesn’t wish to be touched or for a student with fine motor skill deficits, I may ask them to put their hand on the closed fall-board of the piano and I point to their fingers and they tell me the number.
  • For a student who needs help remembering which fingers to use in the score, I may write all of the numbers in the music or allow them to write in the numbers. I usually only do this after they have told me the correct finger number to be sure they are learning and applying the concept.
  • Other students may need reminders for correct finger number usage by assigning colors to numbers. If they need to use finger number 2 in a troublesome passage, I color that note green or use some sort of colored tape or write the number in that color. It is important to be consistent with the colors for each student.
  • In one case, I began the lesson to find that the child’s therapist had written the numbers on the child’s fingers using non-permanent marker so that the child could see them. While I usually do not do this, it worked well for this child who was marvelously successful with the concept. If I needed to use this technique again I would ask permission first from the parents and explain what we were doing and why. I would also ask permission from the student and explain what we were doing and how it was part of the learning process.
  • For a student with a visual impairment, hand and over hand instruction works very well. I always first explain what we are learning, explain the process, and then ask for permission to touch the student.
  • In the case of instruction for a student with a hearing impairment, I use the same process as I do with the student with a vision impairment, but without the hand over hand touching. I need to remember to make sure that my student can clearly see my face and mouth while I am speaking, and that I am enunciating very clearly in my speech.

First and foremost, I always remember that students with special needs are just like any other student: they desperately want to learn and want to succeed. Whatever teaching technique I use is usually constructed and guided by their needs, and often with their invaluable input. And sometimes, that input is not verbal but may be signaled by attentiveness, eye contact, a smile, or just jumping in and doing. The students truly are the teachers in the setting and observing and learning their way of understanding makes all of us better teachers.

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by Dr. Melissa Martiros and Mrs. Michelle Bastien, Guest Blogger

Follow-up from The National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy

Several years ago, I worked in-home with an adolescent boy who had a tough time staying seated.  And by tough I mean every three minutes he bolted off of the bench.  And by bolted I mean he ran figure eights inside, outside, upstairs, downstairs, and everywhere else but inside the room where his lessons were held.  His mom was frustrated, I was frustrated, even his sister, who was often charged with chasing him down, was frustrated. In an effort to remedy the situation, I turned to behavioral psychology and, with the help and guidance of an Advanced Behavioral Analysis (ABA) expert in my special education program at the University of Wisconsin Madison, I was better able to understand the function of this particular student’s behavior and transform our lessons into something more positive for all of us.

For those of you who were unable to attend our special needs pre-conference seminars at the National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy (NCKP) this past July, you missed a fantastic session on Preventing and Managing Challenging Behavior in the Piano Studio. Mrs. Michelle Bastien, an expert on behavioral intervention strategies in the K-12 school system, provided a highly practical and informative session for piano teachers who struggle with managing negative behaviors in their studios. Since behavior is a most common AND most commonly misunderstood studio challenge, we have asked Michelle to provide her insights on behavioral intervention strategies for our IPT Blog readers. She and I have teamed up for a series of posts related to behavioral strategies in the piano studio.  Please direct any follow up questions to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Common Behaviors in the Studio: Possible Causes

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Let’s face it, piano teaching can be challenging.  For all of our training, practicing and expertise, communicating what we know to our students, passing along a love for music is at once one of the most rewarding and challenging things we do. This is made more challenging when we include children who display challenging behaviors, especially those students with special needs who may also require other accommodations.  The list of challenging behaviors includes: difficulty focusing and paying attention, difficulty making eye contact, difficulty staying on the bench and being still, bolting, tinkering on the keys, carelessness, impulsivity, stubbornness, self-injury, stimming and scripting, low frustration tolerance, negative attitude, extreme withdrawal or refusal to respond, emotional outbursts, and physical aggression.

Often times, these behaviors are misunderstood and misinterpreted by teachers, which ultimately makes the problem worse.  The list of possible causes includes: attention seeking, lack of interest or boredom, the need for choices or control, being overwhelmed by a difficult task, the need for self-regulation, the need for sensory input, hurt feelings or physical pain, a lack of understanding or misunderstanding, needing help, and fear of failure. Teachers can unknowingly reinforce and contribute to these negative behaviors by not understanding the function of the behavior, displaying inconsistency with teaching and management techniques, reinforcing the wrong behavior, displaying irritability or over-reliance on punishment, holding inappropriate expectations, giving up, providing nonfunctional, irrelevant and/or inappropriately paced  instruction, and exhibiting inflexibility or unwillingness to try new strategies or seek suggestions from other sources. We offer a list of preventative measures below:

Be Proactive

The first question most people start with when coming up with the best behavior management strategy is “where do I begin?”. Many people wait until they encounter their first intense behavior episode to start strategizing, but to truly be successful with students who exhibit behaviors, it is important to take a proactive approach and prepare for the worst, while expecting the best! Some really amazing proactive strategies could include using visuals for schedules and expectations. Anxiety around the unknown is a huge stressor for our students on the autism spectrum. Knowing the schedule and the routine of the lesson will help them know what they have achieved and prepare them for what is coming next. For some students using a “First/Then” board with pictures is especially helpful, and pairing it with repetitive language such as “first we will work on notes, then we will play a game” helps them get cognitively prepared.

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Another way to be proactive is to arrange your environment for success. I worked with a teacher once who came to me so frustrated because she had a math student who tipped over the math cart and threw the materials on the ground. Everyday. “Well,” I said to her, “have you considered moving his seat, or the materials, where he can’t get at them?” Such a simple solution, but when we are struggling with a behavior we can’t always see outside the stress of the situation. But planning ahead can help stop a behavior before it has a chance to occur. When arranging the environment, it is also important to know what your student’s triggers are. Is there a demand that typically will set them off or an area of the lesson that they find particularly difficult? If there is, find a way to recondition that negative into a positive. This could be as easy as breaking it down into smaller, more manageable chunks or situating it right before a “student chosen” activity that they prefer.

Motivating factors are another huge way to be proactive in your lessons. Do you know your students’ likes and dislikes? Are you utilizing positive reinforcement? Knowing what will motivate your students to comply with directions and follow through with instructions will help keep the lesson moving in a successful direction! Along the same lines, it is important for you to stay positive in a lesson (even when you are feeling anything but)! Anxiety creates anxiety and a great deal of children who are on the spectrum read nonverbal cues to a tee so if you aren't feeling it, they aren't either!

One of the best practices when it comes to teaching is to build a relationship with your student. It doesn't matter if you're teaching piano or the Pythagorean Theorem, the best way to support your student is to know how they act on a typical day, so you know when something seems a bit wonky.  For example, I was processing a particularly intense behavior episode with a teacher one day and she said “I don’t know what happened. He went from 0-60, he was fine one minute and then the next he was tipping desks and throwing pencils.” While I understand behavior can seem very sudden, it does not occur in a vacuum, so I asked her what happened right before he tipped his desk. She responded with “he refused to complete his math paper and ripped it up.” So I responded again with “what happened before that?” She then gave me a list of behaviors that happened within the classroom until she finally got to “I don’t know, he came in this morning with a pout on his face and in a really bad mood.” “Eureka!!!! There is it!!” That is the precise moment she should have interjected herself. As teachers we have more control over preventing a behavior if we start by truly understanding the source. 

To wrap it up, behavior prevention has many layers, and while we will be going into greater detail at a later time, there are a few take-away points I hope you keep in mind when working with more challenging students.  First, and most important, building relationships is crucial to reducing behaviors in the studio. The better you know your students the better chance you have of knowing what will de-escalate them faster, or what to avoid if you want to prevent the behavior completely.  Being consistent is key! Make a set of ground rules and follow them. Kids will test you to see how far they can go and where the lines are they can’t cross.  If you keep changing where the line is they will never learn. Lastly, never assume. Assumptions can bring down a lesson and a relationship fast (whether it’s assuming you know the intentions of the student or whether it’s assuming the student knows expectations without being explicitly taught) and can be so damaging to your understanding that student. It will be a wall that separates the two of you. Using these strategies will help break down those walls and allow you to forward in your studio in a positive direction!

Michelle Bastien holds the position Special Education Teacher at Shepard Hill High School. She has previously served on the Crisis Team at the Grow School, as Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Specialist for the East Brookfield School District, as a Graduate Research Assistant and Advanced Behavioral Analysis (ABA) Teacher at the New England Center for Children, and as the ABA Coordinator at Webster Middle School.  She holds a MA degree in Severe Special Needs from Simmons College. She may be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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by Dr. Scott Price

Our use of vocabulary when teaching our students with special needs can be a confusing thing on both sides of the piano bench. Why?  - a good question fraught with challenges.

When teaching a traditional neuro-typical student, we assume that they possess a vocabulary. We expect that they know the basic words we use during instruction, and that they know the associations between those words and objects and actions. If they don’t know them, we expect that they will attend to an explanation, or that they will create the associations by themselves, or do further study to understand the vocabulary that has been used.

In further abstraction, we assume our students are capable of using and understanding analogies, metaphors, and other descriptive words and phrases that aid us in fostering artistic music-making at the piano.

But what if your student is non-verbal or possesses a very limited vocabulary? Or what if your student is not able to understand or follow complex grammar structures in sentences? What if they think and use words in very literal ways, and analogies and metaphors seem like nonsense to them? What happens if they have visual or auditory processing challenges, or attention challenges?

It is always best to know our students as well as possible. Just because a student is chronologically 14 years old does not mean that they are 14 years old in their intellectual development, or 14 years old in their emotional development. Their level of development may be unequal in these respects, and their possession of a working vocabulary may differ from their outward appearance.

The answer to these communication challenges may often be found in the use of concise, specific, and literal vocabulary and language constructs.  Our students are wonderfully intelligent and have a lot to teach us about communication. Here are a few of many lessons about communication that I have learned from my students:

1) Assumption is problematic at best, and destructive at worst. I must never assume that my student understands what I have said, or understands anything that I am thinking and trying to express in spoken language. I also must never assume that I fully understand what my student is communicating to me until I see the result in our repeated interpersonal communication, or in the piano playing or music making.

2) Always teach the student what a word means. If I say “black key,” I must be sure that my student knows his or her colors, and that he or she can label a piano key as a “piano key” and that it is “black.” Not every student needs this level of instruction, but it is always good to start at a basic level, make sure the student truly understands the concept vocabulary, and is ready to move on to more advanced use of language.

3) Don’t layer concepts and vocabularies. “Why is that called count 2 when it gets 1 count?” This thinking happens because students are not ready to comprehend and layer the concepts of cardinal numbers (counting numbers – 1, 2, 3, 4) and ordinal numbers (placement numbers – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th). Add in finger numbers and we have too many layers of information for some students to process. Concise language usage would be “Use finger number 2 and play the A-key and count like this – play/hold, or A/hold.” The language is specific, and the process of playing the key is clearly articulated in step-by-step instruction.

4) Be consistent in the use of words. Many of our students understand things in different ways. If we use specific words for specific students, always keep those words the same for that student. I once had a student who thought the black keys were green, so we always called them green – he made it clear he wasn’t going to change his mind about the matter.

5) Avoid slang. “Dude, I was chillin on that Chopin.” “That Beethoven is dope.” “That Rachmaninoff broke my brain.” Students may not be able to understand those idioms. Try instead “I enjoyed that piece by Chopin because…” “I think Beethoven’s music is wonderful.” “That piece by Rachmaninoff was emotionally overwhelming.” Concise and specific language is always a good choice.

6) Analogies may be nonsense. “Meter is like a heartbeat.” Meter is meter, and a heartbeat is a heartbeat. One is something we create with intent from time to time in our music making. The other is an autonomous function of our bodies that we do not consciously control. A student may not be able to link those two concepts together into an abstract way of thinking about beat relationships in music, or in expressive music making. That does not mean they cannot be expressive in their music making. It just means they need a different and more literal and concise explanation of the concept.

7) Metaphors may be nonsense. I often say to students “Who is that note” and explain that notes are just like people in that they can have different personalities and voices, etc., that help us express musical ideas. I once had a student who shouted at me that “NOTES AREN’T PEOPLE!” and we had a lengthy discussion about that fact and how silly it was for me to say something like that to him. He was right and I was wasting his time in the lesson with a concept that was impeding his already successful ability to sight-play notes.

8) Avoid synonyms, or exercise caution in their use. If a student is able to understand a sound as “loud,” then it is best not to refer to it in successive lessons using different synonyms – strong, noisy, thunderous, harsh, hard, etc. – unless one of those words is specific to another facet of piano playing such as technique, etc. If I use a different word, then the student has to learn a new and different word and spend time working through extra vocabulary.

9) Be cautious about the use of homophones. Some students may not be able to contextualize words. It is best not to use homophones in the same sentence – “play count #2 with your finger two, too.” A better choice might be “Play this count with finger 2 each time you see this note pattern.”

10) Don’t use contradictory language. “Good, but...” “Yes, but...” “Not bad.” It is better to use absolute language such as “Yes,” “No,” “Good,” “Not correct, try again.”

11) Always review, and ask students if they understand what you have said. Be sure that they have had time to hear, process, and comprehend what was said, and that they have learned the vocabulary, the word associations, and can actualize the concept. It is also important to always smile, use positive tone, and do your best to help the student know that extra time is ok; repetitions are ok; doing it again next week is ok; and non-comprehension is ok. Their process may need to unfold over a longer period of time than is needed by a traditional student, and the teacher may need time to reflect and compose different language for the concept or task.

12) Tone of voice is important. If you don’t think tone of voice is important, address your significant other without being mindful of the tone in which you speak. A positive and warm tone of voice can help a student overcome anxiety, and to open up to instruction. A sharp or harsh tone of voice can result in an emotional melt-down or shut-down for some students.

13) Don’t despair if understanding has not been achieved, and never let the student despair. Sometimes it takes several weeks to achieve understanding, and that is ok. It is also important to be sure the student understands that it is ok if they don’t understand, and that we’ll try again and that they have done nothing “bad” or “shameful”, and that there was no failure.

Examples of confusing teaching vocabulary:

“You can use your left hand, right?” What was the last word the student heard? The last word I used may have given the student a cue indicating the opposite of what I desired. I may have created confusion, and set up the student for failure.

“Use your finger number 3, too.” Homophones – words that have different meaning but sound the same – 2 (two), too. The importance is in the context of the use of the word. Again, if the student understood “2 (two)” instead of “too” as the last word I used, I may have given the student a cue indicating something different from what I desired. I may have created confusion, and set up the student for failure.

“Let the phrase grow.” In concise, literal, and specific language in the context of piano playing, sounds cannot grow. Each tone we play begins an immediate decay in sound. If you think about it, grass grows, animals grow, people grow. If I want for the student to create a crescendo, then they need to know that each successive note must be played with increasing finger strength to create a louder sound. The words “soft, louder, louder, loudest” or “gentle, stronger, stronger, strongest” equal crescendo.

“What would that note name be?” If I was pointing to a “C” and said “What would that note be?”, the last thing the student heard was “be.” Was I telling them that the note was “B”? It is better to say “What is that note.” – avoid teacher-generated confusion.

“Play count three with two.” Again, teacher-generated confusion. “Play that count with finger number two.” Concise, step-by-step language is a better way to communicate the concept and its actualization.

“Pretty good. Not bad.” Think about what I just wrote and that it may have very little meaning for a student, or may have devastating meaning for a student who hears and understands those words in a literal manner. Pretty. Good. Not. Bad. Did I tell the student he or she was pretty? Did I tell the student he or she was good, not and bad all at the same time? Was “bad” the only word the student remembers hearing? It is better to say “That was correct!” or “Good job!”

“Use a good hand position – no broken wrists.” It is better to say “Use a good hand position and a good wrist position.” If the student has broken wrists, he or she literally cannot play, or the teacher may be informed “I DO NOT have broken wrists!” Figurative language in instruction is not always the best choice – literal language is better.

These are just a few examples of how things can go very wrong in a lesson, and it is usually my fault as a teacher. I would also be remiss if I did not stress the importance of clear pronunciation and enunciation, and the need to sometimes speak in different tempi for different students to allow them time to process my speech.

Lastly, and most important: I always give my student as much time as he or she needs to process what I have said, comprehend the vocabulary I used, and to turn those words into understanding and associated actions. The students know best how to communicate, and we need to listen to them with our ears, eyes, minds, and hearts as they respond. And remember that we are always teaching them vocabulary as well as piano playing and music making. If a question or problem in communication seems insurmountable, always go to the parents. They communicate with their child on a daily basis and can be your best resource on which communicative words or devices work, and which do not work.

In the end, our students will teach us the communication tools they need and it is our responsibility to learn and respond in like manner. Our students are very, very smart if we let them show us the way forward in their learning.

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by Dr. Beth Bauer

As mentioned in the previous posts on teaching reading, our students come to us with various labels or diagnoses.  However, one student with the label of autism or Down syndrome is just that.  One person with the label.  As piano teachers, we all have training in piano pedagogy.  As teachers of students with disabilities, we also have training and knowledge in special education that directs how we approach learning strategies.  However, the way I teach one student with autism may not be the same way that I teach a second student with autism how to read music. 

The way I approach teaching reading to my students is individualized to each child’s needs.  Many of the strategies I use are built off of strategies used in school when teaching the child how to read text.  In the book Teaching Reading to Children with Down Syndrome, Patricia Oelwein talks about four steps in the learning process for all students.  I have found her processes and steps work well with all students and not just students with Down syndrome.  The first step is input of sensory information through seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, or smelling.  Second is perception of organizing and interpreting the sensory information to give meaning to objects or events.  The third step is the storage of the information.  Finally, there is the output or response of retrieving and using the stored information.  These steps are also relevant and present for students with disabilities; however, they might have difficulty with each of these processes.  This will require us as teachers to provide more repetitions to learn reading.  We also need to be patient as it could take longer for our students to master note reading.

These steps are very influential in the way I approach teaching note reading to students with most disabilities.  For example, input of sensory information is the first exposure to note reading through games or flashcards that are used several weeks before a student ever sees the note in a music score.  Perception of organizing and interpreting the information is done during the weekly home practice.  Games or flashcards are sent home from the lesson to be done at home.  Storage of information occurs during practice and is assessed at the weekly lesson.  Retrieval and using the stored information is when we see the student reading actual music.

In addition to steps in the learning process, Oelwein also discusses stages in the learning process of reading.  These stages are acquisition, practice to fluency, transfer, and generalization.  These stages are also applicable to the music reading process. 

Acquisition refers to a student’s first exposure to the topic.  In the case of music reading,  the student does not know the staff, letters of the music alphabet, lines or spaces, and the symbols of treble or bass clef.  During this stage, I break each of these concepts down.  For example, let’s use the example of the staff.  I show the student a flashcard of the staff, tell him or her this is a music staff, ask the student to match the flashcard of the staff to another flashcard of a staff, and help the student to name it.  This would be repeated for clefs, line notes. and space notes.  This could take several weeks.

Practice to fluency is after a student has been introduced to the word staff.  The student has matched it, selected it, and named it with prompts but now the student needs to practice this during weekly practice to become fluent.  For this stage, I will send home a picture flashcard of a staff as well as a flashcard with the word staff.  The student will practice matching the two flashcards during weekly practice.  I would also include the same style flashcards of clefs, line notes, and space notes.

Transfer is the ability for the student to name staff, clefs, line notes, and space notes in a variety of presentations.  In addition to the flashcard games, I will see if the student can recognize staff, clefs, line notes, and space notes in a score or other music games.

Generalization is when the student can read these symbols in ALL situations.  I love when I receive an email from a student’s parent telling me that the music teacher at school was shocked that a student recognized one of his or her flashcards in music class. 

This approach works in teaching ALL music symbols.  When a student can recognize the symbols of staff, clefs, and lines and spaces confidently, I move on to actual note reading of letters on the lines and spaces.  When teaching letters, I draw the staff and clef in black on the flashcard.  So the student is focusing on the letter on the staff, I delineate the note in color.  There will be a flashcard with the note drawn on the staff and a separate flashcard with only the note letter.  Examples of flashcards can be seen below:

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All students are capable of learning to read music.  It may take longer and your student may become frustrated, but the reward comes the day the student tells you, “I did it!”. 

Oelwein, P. L. (1995).  Teaching Reading to Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Teachers.  Maryland:  Woodbine House Publishing.